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Deeper look into Neuroimmunology

Neuroimmunology investigates the connections between the bodies immune system and nervous system. It is the study of roles in immune responses to maintaining normal brain function and how immune dysregulation can contribute to many neurological disorders.


1. Definition

Neuroinflammation is inflammation within the Central Nervous System (Brain & Spinal Chord). The inflammation is mediated by chemokines, cytokines, secondary messengers, and reactive oxygen species.

2. Where is comes from

Inflammation can be caused by viral infections, injuries or autoimmune diseases, mental stresses, metabolic disorders, and inflammation of the peripheral organs.

3. Disorders associated with Neuroinflammation

Multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and stroke. Microglia and astrocytes are key components in regulating inflammatory responses in the CNS.

Autoimmune Neurological Disorders

Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis

Immune cells attack the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers causing motor, sensory and cognitive disability. MS occurs when the myelin sheath protecting a person’s nerve fibers is being attacked by their immune system. This causes disability in their overall functioning.
Neuromyelitis optica

Neuromyelitis optica

Antibodies attack proteins that support the optic nerve and spinal cord, leading to blindness and paralysis. NMO is rare condition in which the immune system targets a person’s optic nerve and spinal chord. Without intervention, this damage leads to paralysis and blindness.

Autoimmune encephalitis

Autoimmune encephalitis

It involves inflammation and swelling of the brain, usually as a result of an underlying tumor. AE involves high levels of inflammation in the brain often due to the presence of a tumor. It causes rapid and often unexplained decline in physical and mental wellbeing.

Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB)


The BBB is a tight-knit array of cells which protects the brain from circulating toxins and pathogens into the bloodstream. Secondly the BBB is still allowing vital nutrients to be delivered to the brain. Protecting the Central Nervous System (CNS)

BBB Dysfunction (Leaky Brain)

  • Contributes to neuroinflammatory processes
  • Increases the risk of neurodegenerative disorders
  • Brain fog and difficulty concentrating are signs your BBB may not properly be functioning
  • Can cause Multiple Sclerosis, stroke, epilepsy

Immune Regulation

  • Immune cells regulate BBB permeability
  • BBB breakdown can result in peripheral immune cell infiltration
  • Regulated with interactions with vascular, immune, and neural cells
  • Immune Cells cross through the blood brain barrier through pores within the endothelial cell body or the transcellular diapedesis

Neuroimmune Interactions in Neurodevelopment

Immune Mechanisms

Immune molecules and cells shape neuronal networks and synaptic plasticity during brain development.


Immune dysregulation can contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia.

Brain Plasticity

Immunomodulation promotes brain plasticity and resilience to stress.

Therapeutic Opportunities

Immunomodulatory therapies are being developed to treat neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders.


1. Immunomodulatory drugs

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2. Monoclonal antibodies

These are antibodies designed to target specific immune cells or molecules involved in neuroinflammatory processes. Examples include natalizumab and rituximab.

3. Cell-based therapies

These involve the use of stem cells or immune cells to modulate immune responses and promote tissue repair. These therapies are being studied for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders. 

The Future of Neuroimmunology

The Future of Neuroimmunology

Advancements in neuroimmunology offer new hope for the treatment and prevention of neurological disorders. The development of targeted immunotherapies and a deeper understanding of immune regulation and neuroinflammatory processes will usher in a new era of personalized medicine with improved outcomes for patients.


Neuroimmunology is a rapidly advancing field with important implications for the understanding and treatment of neurological disorders. From neuroinflammation to the BBB to neurodevelopment, the immune system plays a key role in brain function and dysfunction.

1. Key Areas of Study

Neuroinflammation, autoimmune neurological disorders, BBB regulation, neuroimmune interactions, and neuroimmunotherapy.

2. Future Directions

Personalized immunotherapies and a deeper understanding of immune regulation in neurological disorders.

3. The Promise of Neuroimmunology

Improved outcomes and quality of life for patients with neurological disorders.


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